Additional Resources

Web Page Accessibility

Internet accessibility has been addressed by an international body overseeing the protocols and operations of the Internet, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). In 1999, the W3C presented recommendations for accessible web design. Summary guidelines, technical information and supporting resources developed by the W3C can be found within this web site location.

Additional information and educational content on web page access can be found at WebAIM (Web Accessibility in Mind).

Yale University’s Information Technology Services also supports information on web page accessibility.

Interpreting Services and Technology for Persons with Hearing Disabilities

There are several accepted interpreting services used by persons with hearing disabilities. We are most familiar with American Sign Language (ASL), however a student with a hearing disability may rely on other interpreting services. The syntax used in American Sign Language is not the same as spoken English; rather, it is a different language. Other interpreting services include Signed English, Oral Interpreting and Cued Speech. Signed English uses spoken English and a sign for every word. When Oral Interpreting is used, the student will read the lips of the interpreter who is specially trained to repeat speech clearly and silently. Cued Speech interpreting uses a hand code to represent each speech sound in conjunction with lip reading.

Assistive technology can be required in small or large group lectures and meetings. A FM transmitter/receiver unit offers amplification provided via infrared transmission between a microphone worn by the speaker and a receiving device worn by the student. Yale’s Media Service Office (432-2650) can supply a loaned unit on request. Computer Assisted Real-time Transcription (CART) provides word for word script on a computer laptop utilizing special software similar to the process used in court transcribing. C-Print, similar to CART, uses special software that provides a transcription that can be used later as notes. If CART or C-Print is required, a trained professional will accompany the student to classes and meetings.

Relay Connecticut is a public service company that provides free support for voice telephone communications with a person who is using a TTY/TTD. To use this service, voice callers dial 1-800-833-8134. The service will call the TTY/TTD user and offer a third party person to translate between written and spoken conversation. The third party person is required to translate information exactly and is under strict regulations to keep the content of all conversations confidential.

Media captioning can be supported through Yale’s Broadcast & Digital Media Center (203-432-1060)

Information on any of these services is available at SAS.

Technology Resources for Persons with Visual impariments

Students who are blind may rely on reading braille. There are small portable notetaking devices with a keyboard that can “read-back” input via braille or produce regular print using a computer printer. Computer software is available to convert text to braille and music (score and lyrics) to braille. Reading braille music requires special training and we cannot assume that all blind students can read braille music.

Computer software is used frequently to produce “speech output.” This software relies on a common sound card and speakers and will read aloud text, menu bars and dialogue on a computer screen. Printed text can be “read” via the use of a scanner. Some of the University libraries have computer workstations equipped with this software and more workstations are planned. Yale students who are blind may have this equipment in their residences. Use of this software requires excellent keyboarding skills and the use of memorized “hot-keys” to execute commands as an alternative to using a mouse or trackball.

Computer software is available to magnify screens and text for persons with visual disabilities. There are also machines known as “Closed Circuit TV’s” (CCTV’s) that magnify print information. Again, there are some workstations at the University libraries equipped with the software and more planned for the future. There is a public CCTV located in the Reading Room at Sterling Memorial Library.

While many of us are familiar with closed captioning (for persons with hearing disabilities), there is closed description captioning for persons who are blind. This process describes the scene and motions of actors in a video.

Information on these technologies is available at SAS on Disabilities.

Other Disability-Related Resources

SAS offers a University map indicating accessible entrances to buildings throughout campus and the location of elevators within buildings. This map is available to anyone on request. The map is also found at this website location. Internet Explorer does not support the details of accessibility. Google Chrome and Firefox work fine.

We welcome inquiries on disability information, accommodations, and assistive technology used by persons with disabilities. Please call us at 203-432-2324 or e-mail Our office is located at 35 Broadway (rear entrance), room 222 (please visit Directions to our Office for details).